Kevin Penn American Intercontinental University Unit 1 Individual Project CRJS105 –1103b-04 Theories of Crime Causation August 28,2011 Abstract In this paper I will explain the differences between Criminologists, Criminalists, and Forensic psychologists and what is the difference in their disciplines of expertise. As well as looking at blue collar crime vs. white collar crime, how they are reported and measured by the FBI in their uniformed crime reporting. Also how blue collar crime is much more popular culture by the media.
And finally the difference between a index- one and index- two crime under the UCR, as well as which index-one crimes are violent crimes and which ones are property crimes. In my conclusion I look at the three fields of criminal justice together create a unified force to battle crime and the difference in white and blue collar crime carries much different sentences. as well as how some new form of UCR needs to put in place.
I will look at the difference in the amount of time given for crimes depending on what type of crime such as white collar or blue collar.
In order to understand the different types of criminal justice we should look at it like a three leg stool and that each leg is just as important as the other in order to prevent, solve and investigate crime and criminal behavior. The first leg of this stool is Criminology this is a study that is within the confines of sociology in doing so a criminologist looks more from a social science point of view into the causation and prevention of crime and the criminal justice system as a whole. The
Criminologists assess the effectiveness of criminal profiles and investigative techniques and conduct research. With this more sociological approach the Criminologists take classes in areas of concentration such as white-collar crime, victimology, juvenile justice, and human behavior (Free dictonary;nd). The next leg of the criminal justice stool is the Criminalist, in this study the Criminalist will require a more science oriented approach found in the studies of chemistry, biology, physics, and statistics, along with courses in criminal justice.
The Criminalist deals with science, to help in solving many questions that police have, with things like the collection of DNA evidence. The Criminalists examine and perform scientific tests in the laboratory on obscure evidence found at a crime scene they usually work in a forensic science lab, and are found in most Federal or State government, working alongside of police. Forensic science (or criminalistics) applies a collection of physical and biological sciences along with new and ever evolving technologies that are applied to issues of law (Gaensslen, 2003).
The third and ever important leg is Forensic psychology. This has to do with criminal profiling wherein profilers attempt to create a tentative personality composite of the potential suspect. “Forensic psychology involves application of psychological research, theory, and clinical practice to the legal/criminal justice system. Forensic psychologists mostly conduct research and may also determine the mental fitness of defendants to stand trial and help with jury selection, eliminating those jurors who have psychological biases that may affect the case. Crime is, at its most basic level, an expression of one’s motivations and desires, and it is this tenet that is at the core of profiling” (Palmero, 2005, p. 246). The foremost method for preparing for this research was a thorough literature review. The other research methods used were critical thinking and interpretations of studies, procedures, computer simulations and experiments (Woodworth & Porter, 1999) . According to Gerberth, the fundamentals of a profiler analyzes acquired facts from the crime scene(s), victim(s), and witnesses to create a personality composite of a potential perpetrator (as cited in Woodworth & Porter, 1999).
Homant and Kennedy point out that this discipline is not depended upon to solve a crime, but to aid in reducing the number of suspects (as cited in Woodworth & Porter, 1999). Criminal investigation can often use the profilers information to eliminate the number of suspects. The Criminalist uses the forensic science laboratory to use the collected evidence by investigators in order to deliver scientifically accurate results. Psychological profilers can use information gathered at the crime scene to help understand the behavior and personality of a possible offender.
These results can put an investigation in the right direction for Police. Although there is no legal importance or meaning in the differences between white-collar crime and blue-collar crime, it is but a term that used to identify what has become to be known as “clean and dirty crimes”. According to legal law dictionary “those illegal acts which are characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust and which are not dependent upon the application or threat of physical force or violence”(Free dictonary;nd).
We have seen in the past that white collar crimes are usually those types of crimes that deal with different types of fraud like securities, healthcare and tax evasion although it’s not limited to just these types of crimes (MOJO;nd). The term “White collar crime was coined in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland who stated; “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. “(Mojo;n. d. ). White collar crime is viewed as being more of an urbane type of criminals.
We can also see in many cases white collar crimes are far more difficult to prosecute many times they go unnoticed (Mojo;n. d. ). Whereas a blue collar crime is one that is committed with or by some form of force. Crimes against the person, crimes against property, and many forms of victimless crime such as prostitution, gambling and drug abuse all tend to be classified as blue-collar crime. Blue-collar crimes are, for the most part, those that cause an immediate and highly visible injury to society, so they’re usually punished much more rapidly and severely than white-collar crime.
While both white collar and blue collar crimes are reported to the Uniformed Crime Report of the FBI (UCR). Although many white collar crimes are not reported to the UCR by law enforcement agencies other than the police like the IRS for crimes like tax evasion (FBI; n. d. ). Due to the high visibility of blue collar crimes these crimes get far more attention by local and national media coverage. Since we have touch on the reporting of crimes to the UCR we now moved toward the different types of reporting of crimes to the UCR. In 1929 a program was created for the purpose of reporting criminal offenses (FBI;n. . ). Since then they have now been divided into two parts as of May 1985 the “Blueprint for the Future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program” (FBI;n. d. ) . We now have part 1 which has crimes like murder, forcible rape and aggravated assault all of these that I have listed are violent crimes; yet there are others that I would classify as property crimes like burglary, motor vehicle theft and theft-larceny. In part 2 of the UCR crimes like embezzlement and forgery (white collar crime) and other blue collar crimes like gambling, stolen property and liquor offenses (FBI;n. . ). In conclusion: The relationship of this three legged stool of Criminology, Criminalist and Forensic psychology within the criminal justice system works in perfect harmony. Criminology, Criminalist the incorporation of these three theories and methods of Criminology, Criminalist (forensic science) and forensic psychology help to reduce and has the possibility of eliminating unsolved crimes? Each of these subfields of study contributes great viewpoint and approach into the problems of crime and the solving of crime.
This relationship between the different criminal justice disciplines creates a frightening and mighty force against the criminal element in our society. Although all crimes need to be reported to the UCR and placed into one of the current Indexs to get a true and accurate model for crime in this country; it just has not come to realization as of yet. I have also uncovered that when looking at both types of crime that the punishment of white collar crimes is many times far less that blue collar crimes because; many times due to the shear egregious nature of the crime (Mojo;n. . ). References Gaensslen, R. E. (2003). How do I become a forensic scientist? : Educational pathways to forensic science careers retrieved 8/20/2011 from [Electronic version]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 376, 1151-1155. No author (nd) FBI Uniform crime reports retrieved 8/26/2011 fromhttp://www. fbi. gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/ucr No author (nd) Mojo law blue collar crime criminal law basics retrieved 8/25/2011 from http://www. mojolaw. com/info/cl020
No author (nd) Mojo law white collar crime criminal law basics retrieved 8/25/2011 from http://www. mojolaw. com/info/cl020 Palmero, G. B. (2005). Criminal profiling: The uniqueness of the killer retrieved 8/22/11from [Electronic version]. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 46(4), 383-385. Woodworth, M. & Porter, S. (1999). Historical foundations and current applications of criminal profiling in violent crime investigations retrieved 8/19/2011 from [Electronic version]. Expert Evidence, 7, 241-264.
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