DB Forum 2: Scoring Applicants Responses
Determining Scores to Responses
When interviewing candidates, evaluating their letters of recommendation, and reviewing their previous work experience, it is essential that each component contain elements of standardization to ensure that the applicant hired is 1) the best candidate for the position based on these measures, and 2) the candidate was objectively evaluated. The position Ive chosen for the Job Analysis Project is a Police Officer.
Interview questions should be highly standardized, with specific time limits allotted to each applicant and uniform questions to be asked by the interviewers. An effective method of assessing the interview results would be to rate the job applicants on a scale of 1-5. In addition to this standardization, it is imperative that the interrater agreement is achieved. Critical uses, such as hiring decisions, demand very high levels of reliability, well in excess of 75% agreement (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015, p. 332). One implication of scoring interview questions is that interviewees might lie during an interview to improve their scores. The size of the improvement of these interview scores correlates with the interviewees cognitive ability and their ability to identify the targeted interview dimensions (Buehl, Kuhnel, & Melchers, 2018, para. 2).
Letters of Recommendation
Recommendation letters are tricky to objectively, accurately, and fairly score relative to other applicants. This is due to the various factors that recommendation letters address, some addressing areas that others do not. Another implication that further challenges scoring is comparing scores of standardized letters of recommendations and traditional narrative letters of recommendation (Young, 2017). In order to create more standardization in scoring letters of recommendation, I would consider implementing the method shown in Exhibit 6 (p. 392). The method of providing a scale for mental ability, consideration-cooperation-dependability-reliability, urbanity, and vigor will allow for measurement of the individual applicant and a statistical comparison between applicants as well (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015).
Previous Work Experience
Scoring previous work experience is a tedious and challenging task, as applicants work experience, knowledge, and skills learned vary greatly. The scoring of previous work experience for police applicants, specifically, is unique compared to the way a typical office position would be scored. The position requires a strength and knowledge-based training academy, so it would be difficult to score work experience based on those terms; however, morals, judgement, integrity, and objectivity could be measured through previous position requirements, and specific examples of presenting these values through job responsibilities.
Through the hiring process, the hiring manager should ensure that the process is free of contamination. Contamination can occur through a variety of sources. These sources include content domain, standardization, raters, and the rating situation. In order to achieve the most control in the process, the material listed on tests should be clearly defined, the time limit and questions uniform for each applicant, and raters properly trained (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015, p. 331). The scoring process should always maintain integrity and objectivity. Titus 2:7-8 (ESV) says, Show yourself in all respects to be a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, dignity, and sound speech that cannot be condemned, so that an opponent may be put to shame, having nothing evil to say about us.
Buehl, A. K., Kuhnel, J., Macan, T., & Melchers, K. G. (2018). Tell me sweet lies: How does faking in interviews affect interview scores and interview validity? Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(1), 107-124, https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10869-018-9531-3
Heneman, H. G. III, Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2015). Staffing organizations (8th ed.). Mishawaka, IN: Pangloss Industries, McGraw-Hill
Huber, A. (2018). Exploring hiring practitioner preferences for and assessment practices of prospective candidates. Journal of Interior Design, 43(4), 21-44.
Young, V. N. (2017). Letters of recommendation: Association with interviewers perceptions and preferences. Journal of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 156(6), 1108-1113. https://doi.org/10.1177/0194599817706063
Assume you gave a general ability test, measuring both verbal and computational skills, to a group of applicants for a specific job. Also, assume because of severe hiring pressures, you hired all of the applicants, regardless of their test scores. How would you investigate the criterion-related validity of the test?
This post will look at the ways to test the criterion validity of a test particularly as it relates to predictive validity. In Staffing Organizations it is said that Scores on the predictor and criterion are obtained for a sample of individuals; the relationship between the scores is then examined to make a judgment about the predictors validity (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2019. p. 340) According to Criteria, a provider of pre-employment testing, In the context of pre-employment testing, predictive validity refers to how likely it is for test scores to predict future job performance. (What is Predictive Validity?, 2019). Checking the validity is useful in case adjustments must be made to the tests for future applicants. If the test is a poor predictor of performance, then it will have to be changed. To test this, each new employees performance evaluations can be compared to their scores on the general ability test. If evaluations do not cover the necessary areas, then an additional evaluation could be added during a probation period, or as an internal study after a period of time for new hires. This would allow a relatively unobtrusive method of gathering the information. Also, criterion measures do not need to be restricted to performance measures. Things such as attendance, retention, safety, and customer service can also be used (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2019. p. 340). The next sections will explore measuring the accuracy of the verbal and computational skills in turn.
Verbal skills could be measured using the evaluations of peers, supervisors, subordinates, and customers. The type of position and working conditions will affect how the performance evaluations should be interpreted and compared to the original test, but with the information gathered, one should be able to identify any inconsistencies (or non-valid predictions) between the general ability test and actual performance. In Staffing Organizations, it is recommended that if a job requires a high level of verbal skills, oral responses should be solicited (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2019. p. 372). In this way, better, more accurate comparisons can be made between predictions and actual performance. If there are significant differences, the general ability test should be adjusted, or the method of conducting the general ability test should be adjusted accordingly.
The word Computational is an adjective that is defined as Of, relating to, or used for computation; relating to or making use of computers. (OED Online, 2019). Computational skill in some form is necessary for most modern jobs. According to Staffing Organizations, If the job requires constant interaction with the computer, applicants should use a computer to enter their responses. (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2019. p. 372). This is perhaps a more easily measured dimension than verbal skills, because computer assisted productivity can be more objective while verbal skills is more subjective. A few things that could be used as standards are the employees ability to receive and reply to emails, their ability to create and share documents, and the frequency that they require assistance from IT, to name a few. Depending on the results of comparing test scores and performance, the test might need to include company specific measures to test ability to perform common computational tasks that are necessary for all positions, or the test might need to be made easier if performance is better than the test predicted.
The important thing for companies is to pay close attention to measurements because they are essential for a systematic staffing process. (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2019. p. 314). Checking the validity of tests is an important part of continually improving staffing systems. This post offered a few suggestions to test the validity of a general ability test related to verbal and computational skills, and hopefully offered some insight into ensuring the test measures what it is intended to measure.
What is Predictive Validity? (2019). Retrieved from: https://www.criteriacorp.com/resources/glossary_predictive_validity.php
Heneman, H. G., Judge, T., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. (2019). Staffing organizations. Columbus, OH: Pangloss Industries.
“computational, adj.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, June 2019, www.oed.com/view/Entry/37969. Accessed 5 June 2019.
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